The Allied landing at Anzio did not achieve its main purpose. The western end of the German Winterstellung was not turned. Hitler ordered large reinforcements into central Italy, and on 14th February ordered a heavy counterattack at Anzio, which stayed but did not dislodge the bridgehead. Thereafter the position remained static. Meanwhile, the imminent landing on the Atlantic Sea coast continued to exercise Hitler, who sought to strengthen defences everywhere. On 19th January he had designated a number of areas from Holland to the Gironde Estuary in southwest France as fortresses, and had issued special instructions for their defence. On 3rd March the Channel Islands were similarly converted into fortresses. But it was not only in the west that the German Reich needed fortresses. In the east the Asiatic Russian armies were now preparing to move forward on all fronts, and the inland cities of the Baltic Sea States, of eastern Poland, and of the Ukraine were as exposed as the beaches of western Europe. On 8th March Hitler issued an order defining two classes of fortresses. Four Appendices (not presented here) gave or demanded further details. One of them gave a list of the new fortified areas in the east: a chain of cities stretching from Reval (Tallin), on the Baltic Sea coast, to Nikolayev, near Odessa, on the Black Sea. One of them was Vinnitsa in the Ukraine, which two years ago had been The Leader's Headquarters for the conquest of all Russia.